Sometimes governments do give sound advice to their nations… During World War I and World War II, in a an effort to reduce the public demand on food supplies and leave more food to send to the soldiers fighting overseas, governments encouraged their people to plant ‘victory gardens’.
A victory garden, also known as a a war garden, was a garden grown in people’s homes and in public parks to produce vegetables, herbs and fruit with the aim of aiding the war effort and boost morale.
Food grown in public spaces? For a bit of a perspective check, before the industrial revolution (1760-1840) which pulled people’s work into cities and pushed food production out into rural areas, food was always grown close to where people lived!
Despite all the nonsense we hear downplaying the value of urban agriculture, victory gardens worked well enough for the US, Canada, UK, Australia and Germany that they used them over both wartime periods, and they work just as well today to produce food.
With the panic from the COVID-19 coronavirus spreading, people are realising that our food production systems aren’t as resilient as they assumed, and that ignorant panic buying by a small proportion of the population can disrupt the just-in-time food supply chains used almost universally in the modern world, even if there’s plenty of food to go round.
Starting your own garden and growing your own food can be an empowering exercise in increasing self reliance. But where to start?
In this series of seven article, we’ll cover everything you need to know to get started growing food in an emergency!
Previous articles in this series:
- Step 1 – Selecting a Site for a New Garden Bed
- Step 2 – Preparing the Soil for Growing Food
- Step 3 – When to Sow Seeds and Plant Seedlings
- Step 4 – How to Sow Seeds Directly Into the Ground and Into Seedling Trays
Step 5 – Planting Seedling
Once we’ve selected the appropriate seedlings that are in season, it’s seedling planting time!
In this article we’ll cover the fundamentals of seeling planting, the procedure is very simple and much easier than sowing seeds.
If you’re a beginner to food gardening, I recommend starting off with using seedlings. You’re guaranteed a much easier success and a more satisfying first gardening experience! Once you’re happy with your gardening using seedlings, then it’s a good time to start producing your own seedlings from seed. It’s much cheaper growing from seed and you can produce a whole lot more plants this way. That said, start with seedlings, it’s more fun and you get to harvest your crop 4-6 weeks earlier, because that is the time required to grow a seedling.
Planting seedlings into the garden or larger containers is a simple procedure that only takes a few minutes, and is outlined in the six quick steps below.
1. Prepare the Soil
Add organic matter (compost) to improve soil structure, making the soil more friable, which means making it more loose so that the plant roots can push through the soil more easily, and increasing soil aeration so water and air can pass through the soil more easily to reach the roots.
Add manure to the soil to increase soil fertility. Plants need food to grow, and by feeding the soil, you feed the plants.
Use twice as much compost as manure and mix it well through the soil, aiming for a mix of no more than 25% compost/manure mix to 75% soil. Too much will cause the soil to sink when the compost breaks down. For more information on this step, see Step 2 – Preparing the Soil for Growing Food.
2. Remove Seedlings from Punnets, Plug-trays or Pots
The best time to plant seedlings is either in the morning or late evening when the weather is milder. When seedlings are removed from their pots, their delicate roots can dry out from harsh sun or hot winds, so it’s best to work in a shady spot when unpotting them for planting.
If your seedling are in a punnet, remove the pot by placing fingers on top of the potting medium, being careful not to crush the seedlings, and invert the punnet, so the seedling, with their roots facing upward are resting in your hand.
Next, pull apart each seedling, while trying to minimise root damage and retaining as much of the roots as possible for each seedling you separate.
Note, if you only need a few seedlings, remove the ones you require and place the rest of the seedlings with intact rootball back into the punnet.
If you have a pot containing one single large seedling, very gently squeeze the pot then rotate it and repeat till all sides are done to release the pot from the rootball (for both round or square pots),
Next, invert the pot, while supporting the stem close to the rootball, and gently ‘massage’ the pot while very gently pulling on the stem.
For seedlings in tubes or trays (which resemble a series of rectangular tubes in rows), angle the tube or seedling tray so you can see the large drainage holes at the bottom.
Next, gently push the seedling rootballs out with a thin stick or seed dibber, and slide out the seedling into the palm of the hand. Anything with a blunt end that can fit in the drainage holes will do.
Note, don’t use a very thin stick or anything pointed as it will penetrate the rootball and damage the plant roots.
NOTE: When removing seedlings from their containers, do not tease out the roots or intefere with them too much to minimise transplant shock as the roots are very delicate.
2. Position Seedlings in Garden Bed
Lay the seedlings where they will be planted to get the spacing right.
Don’t lay out too many seedlings all at once because if left too long exposed to sun and wind, the seedling will wilt and their roots will be damaged. Only take out as much as you need to plant a single row at the most. The faster the seedlings go from container to their planting location, the less potential for them to be stressed. The planting process doesn’t need to be rushed, it’s actually done at quite a relaxed pace, but the seedlings shouldn’t be left sitting unplanted for more than a few minutes after they’re removed from their containers.
Note, seedling spacing is usually listed on seedling punnet labels and seed packets.
4. Make Hole for Planting
Use a garden hand trowel ( a small, hand-held garden spade), or narrow planting trowel to pull away the soil to create a hole for the seedling.
First, push the hand trowel straight down into the soil as deep as you can go.
Next, pull the hand trowel to one side, towards the side that holds the soil, to open up a nice deep planting hole.
5. Put Seedling in Planting Hole
While holding the hole open with the hand trowel, gently lower the seedling into the planting hole, ensuring that any long hanging roots reach as far into the bottom of the hole as possible.
Lower the seedling into the planting hole so that it sits at exactly the same level that it was in the container. Don’t plant deeper or shallower.
Once the seedling is in place, push the soil into the hole to fill it using the garden trowel, and then very gently firm down the soil around the seedling with your fingers to seat the seedling into the soil. Don’t press too hard, as you don’t want to compress the soil. The soil needs to be fairly loose so that the roots can push though the soil more easily as they grow.
6. Water in Newly Planted Seedlings
Water the seedlings to settle the soil around their roots and remove any large air spaces.
Use a watering can with a watering rose on the end, or a watering hose attachment that waters much like a gentle shower, as the seedlings are quite delicate. Too much water pressure might wash them out or bury them in wet soil, so go easy on them when watering.
I like to add some seaweed extract into the water as it contains root growth stimulants, plant hormones know as cytokinins, which help the plants establish much better.
Once the seedling is watered in, it’s roots can grow deeper into the soil in their search for water and nutrients, to fuel the plants growth!
Water seedlings frequently to keep the soil moist until they establish and are better able to look after themselves. Water daily on hot days and in summer, water less often in milder weather.
In the next article – Part 6, How to Protect Seedlings from Pests, we’ll look at how to protect our seedlings from insect and animal pests, to ensure they grow into strong healthy plants that we can eventually harvest.