Strange Brew! Homemade Garden Sprays

Circle of Magic, John William Waterhouse

 

In Permaculture we like to do things naturally, and we like to exercise our initiative to make use of the resources at hand to achieve our ends.

What better way to do this than to brew up your own DIY garden natural pesticides, fungicides, plant tonics and other such useful concoctions!

 

I’ve managed to gather a few recipes on my journeys, so I’ve gathered them all here to share, so here they are, enjoy, and safe brewing!!!

 

 

Organic White Oil

White Oil is an easy and inexpensive pesticide to prepare. It is used to control scale, aphids, mealy bug, citrus leaf miner, mites and caterpillars on roses, ornamentals, citrus and other fruit trees.

The commercial white oil insecticides sold in garden stores are petroleum based, making them quite expensive, and also the kind of thing you don’t really want to be spraying around your garden.

Traditional white oil is vegetable oil based and has been in use for around two centuries. If it worked all that time, it still works now!

 

How to Make White Oil

You will need:

  • 2 cups of vegetable oil
  • 1/2 cup pure liquid soap (use pure organic castile soap, made from olive oil if you want to keep it all natural)
  • Empty jar or wide-mouth bottle
  • Plastic spray bottle

Pour the vegetable oil and liquid soap into a bottle or jar and shake until the mixture turns white. This is concentrated white oil and to use it, it needs to be diluted with water.

To use, add 10ml per litre or water (two teaspoons per litre of water), put in a spray bottle, shake well. Now you can spray your plants or trees.

Store in a cool, dry place, shelf life is approximately three months from the day it’s made.

Note – use during mild weather, if you use it when the temperature is around 30 degrees Celsius or higher, it will damage your plants as the oil will clog the pores in the leaves. Morning or late evenings area a good time. Also, don’t use it on plants that have hairy or soft leaves, as it will burn their leaves. Spray on both sides of the leaves, branches and bark to target pests wherever they may be hiding.

 

How does white oil work?

White oil works by coating the insects in oil, blocking their breathing pores, which suffocates them. Because it works through physical suffocation, and not through a chemical action, insects cannot develop resistance to it, ever!

 

If you don’t have liquid soap, don’t despair, we use what’s available! If you have a bar of soap (natural of course – use castile soap bars which are made from olive oil preferably!), here’s the alternative recipe:

 

How to Make White Oil (with a bar or soap) 

You will need:

  • 1/2 cup vegetable oil
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 tablespoon natural soap (in flakes) – grated from a bar of soap
  • 1 plastic spray bottle

Grate the natural soap, and put 1 tablespoon of these soap flakes into the spray bottle.

Pour the vegetable oil and water into the spray bottle.

Shake the spray bottle well. Now you can spray your plants or trees.

 

 

Slug and Snail Spray

You can make a simple spray very cheaply that dissolves slugs and snails without affecting your plants.

This spray simply consists of 1 part ammonia to 4 parts water in a spray bottle, with a dash of liquid soap to make it stick better on the pests. One or two squirts and they dissolve into a foaming green sludge. The slugs are gone instantly because they don’t have a shell to protect themselves, the snails might need a second squirt to coat them well in the spray. Set the nozzle of the spray bottle to a narrow jet so you can target them precisely and give them a good dose of the stuff.

You will need:

  • Plastic spray bottle
  • 1 teaspoon (5ml) of pure liquid soap (use pure organic castile soap, made from olive oil if you want to keep it all natural)
  • 100ml of Cloudy Ammonia
  • 400ml of water

I use a 500ml spray bottle with measurements on the side, which makes the process really easy. Pour 100ml of Cloudy Ammonia into the spray bottle, add 400ml of water, then add a dash of liquid soap to make the mixture stick better to pests. Shake bottle lightly, and you’re ready to hunt these nasty garden molluscs!

Best time to hunt these critters is just when it gets dark, or after it has just rained, which is when they crawl out for a feed. Grab a torch/flashlight, and look for them, if you see them, spray them. Do this over several nights and it puts a serious dent in their population.

 

 

Pyrethrum Daisy and Feverfew General Pesticide

This pesticide is natural Pyrethrum insecticide, which comes from the Pyrethrum Daisy (Tanacetum cinerariaefolium). This plants is a common companion plant in organic gardens, and Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), also of the daisy family, is a herbal remedy for headaches, and also has pest repellent/insecticidal properties. These flat composite flowers also attract beneficial predator insects such as hover flies which prey on aphids and other pest insects.

You will need:

  • 2 parts Feverfew flowers
  • 1 part Pyrethrum flowers
  • Kerosene or Mineral oil
  • 2 drops Sesame oil

 

To make this spray:

  1. Chop flowers.
  2. Cover with kerosene or mineral oil.
  3. Soak overnight in a dark place.
  4. Strain liquid.
  5. Dilute one part liquid in six parts water.
  6. Add sesame oil and spray.

You can increase the effectiveness of the spray by adding additional ingredients to make it stick better to its intended target by using either a wetting agent or a spreader sticker, as described below.

Wetting Agent – Pure soap flakes used at 10g per litre of spray, or liquid soap at 10ml per litre of spray is an effective wetting agent for the above spray.

Spreader Sticker – Coconut oil used at 5ml per litre of spray is an effective spreading agent for the above spray.

 

 

Chilli and Wormwood Spray

This is a multi-purpose spay that can be used to:

Spray on plants to repel possums, rabbits, snails and slugs

Spray on plants to kill aphids, bean fly and white fly

You will need:

  • 1 cup of hot Chillies, the hotter varieties work best
  • 1 cup of Wormwood leaves
  • 6 cups of water

 

To make this spray:

  1. Blend Chillies and Wormwood with 1 cup of water.
  2. Add 5 cups of water and bring to the boil.
  3. Allow to stand for one hour.
  4. Strain and spray.

Caution: Do not allow to come in contact with eyes or skin!

 

You can increase the effectiveness of the spray by adding additional ingredients to make it stick better to its intended target by using either a wetting agent or a spreader sticker, as described below.

Wetting Agent  – Pure soap flakes used at 10g per litre of spray, or liquid soap at 10ml per litre of spray is an effective wetting agent for the above spray.

Spreader StickerCoconut oil used at 5ml per litre of spray is an effective spreading agent for the above spray.

 

 

Coriander (Cilantro) Spray

This spray is effective against spider mites and aphids

You will need:

  • 1 part Coriander plant
  • equal part water

 

To make this spray:

  1. Boil Coriander and water for 10 minutes.
  2. Strain and spray.

 

You can increase the effectiveness of the spray by adding additional ingredients to make it stick better to its intended target by using either a wetting agent or a spreader sticker, as described below.

Wetting AgentPure soap flakes used at 10g per litre of spray, or liquid soap at 10ml per litre of spray is an effective wetting agent for the above spray.

Spreader StickerCoconut oil used at 5ml per litre of spray is an effective spreading agent for the above spray.

 

 

Pennyroyal Ant Repellent Oil

To use this ant repellent, simply paint Pennyroyal oil on ant tracks and nests.

You will need:

  • 1/2 cup of Pennyroyal leaves
  • 1 cup of Safflower oil

 

To make this oil:

  1. Combine Pennyroyal and oil in a blender.
  2. Bottle and cap.

Leave this mixture for a day in a warm spot, and then it is ready to use.

 

 

Chamomile, Chives, Elder, Horseradish and Casuarina General Fungicide

This fungicide is good for treating mildew, black spot, damping off and rust

You will need a selection of:

  • Chamomile flowers
  • Chive leaves
  • Elder leaves
  • Horseradish leaves
  • Casuarina leaves

 

To make this spray:

  1. Cover the leaves and flowers with water.
  2. Bring to the boil.
  3. Let stand 30 minutes.

Spray is now ready to use.

You can increase the effectiveness of the spray by adding additional ingredients to make it stick better to its intended target by using either a wetting agent or a spreader sticker, as described below.

Wetting AgentPure soap flakes used at 10g per litre of spray, or liquid soap at 10ml per litre of spray is an effective wetting agent for the above spray.

Spreader StickerCoconut oil used at 5ml per litre of spray is an effective spreading agent for the above spray.

 

 

Elder General Pesticide and Fungicide

This spray is especially good for aphids, caterpillars, thrips and black spot.

You will need:

  • 500g Elder leaves
  • 3.5L water

 

To make this spray:

  1. Simmer leaves in water for 30 minutes.
  2. Replace water lost as steam.
  3. Strain and spray.

 

You can increase the effectiveness of the spray by adding additional ingredients to make it stick better to its intended target by using either a wetting agent or a spreader sticker, as described below.

Wetting AgentPure soap flakes used at 10g per litre of spray, or liquid soap at 10ml per litre of spray is an effective wetting agent for the above spray.

Spreader StickerCoconut oil used at 5ml per litre of spray is an effective spreading agent for the above spray.

 

Borax Ant Bait

Ants can be a major pest in the garden because the “farm” aphids and scale – they safeguard them in their nests then carry them onto plants, and collect the honeydew that they excrete when the aphids and scale feed off the plant’s sap. The ants defend these pests from predators too. The simplest way to break the cycle is to bait the ants with a toxic bait that that doesn’t kill them instantly, they take it back to their nest, and feed the rest of the ants there, and it slowly destroys the whole colony. Borax is a natural occurring mineral salt,but is poisonous when swallowed, not recommended for use in homes with children and / or pets.

You will need:

  • 4 teaspoons of borax
  • 700ml of water
  • glass screw top jar
  • small jar
  • cotton wool

 

To make this bait:

  1. Mix 1 cup of sugar, 4 teaspoons of borax and 24 ounces (700ml) of water in a glass screw top jar.
  2. Shake thoroughly until you can see that all the crystals are dissolved.
  3. Now put 1 cup of this mixture into a smaller jar which you have filled halfway with loose cotton wool.
  4. Firmly screw the lid back on, seal around the band with weatherproof tape and using an awl punch a few small holes in the centre of the lid.
  5. Put this near the entrance of the nest or wherever they have made a path to your house.

The key is the ants will get into the jar to eat the sugar and return to the nest and pass it on to the rest of the colony. If you find many dead ants by the jar dilute the solution and try again. With a proper mixture the colony may be destroyed in a few weeks. It does take the destruction of the queen to completely eradicate a colony. Keep this away from kids and pets.

 

Earwig Bait Trap

This is a baited trap for earwigs that is buried in the soil with a small cover over it to prevent the trap filling water when it rains. It uses soy sauce as the attractant (bait) to draw the earwigs in, and the oils ensures that when they fall in, they can’t swim and crawl out, and they drown in the container.

You will need:

  • 2 tablespoons (30ml) soy sauce
  • vegetable oil
  • any small container that is reasonably deep, such as a small jar, plastic yogurt container, tuna tin or similar
  • cover for the small container, which is reasonably larger than the container, such as a lid from a larger jar (large plastic lids work well)

 

Bait for Earwigs can be made as follows:

Earwig Trap

  1. In a small container (small yogurt container, small jar, tuna tin, large pill bottle or anything that is fairly deep), add 2 tablespoons (30ml) of soy sauce, and then pour in vegetable oil to form a layer about 6mm deep.
  2. Another way to do it is to put water in the fill the container up to 1/3 of its depth, add the soy sauce, then add just enough oil to cover the surface in a thin layer.
  3. Now bury the container up to its top in the soil, but leave it stick up a slight amount so the soil and surrounding dirt doesn’t fall in and fill the trap, which will render it ineffective. Put some kind of cover or lid over the trap, so it doesn’t get flooded and washed out when it rains. Use a cover larger than the container, so it extends a reasonable way around the edge of the small container to act as a kind of shelter. You can prop up the lid with 4 stones around the jar so that it leaves a small gap all the way around between the container and the cover for the earwigs to crawl under.
  4. Leave it there for a few days and it will fill with earwigs. You can dump the resultant mess into the compost, and then refill the container for the next round.

 

 

This selection should get your garden out of trouble the most problems you’ll come against, and it’s all fairly natural, and best of all, it’s cheap and easy!

Happy brewing!!!

 
 
 
 

46 Responses to Strange Brew! Homemade Garden Sprays

  1. Winston Smith says:

    NIce info, thanks, never found anything that kills spidermites.

    Horsetail, boiled for 20 mins, strain, dilute 1:20 with water, effective against blight and mildew. The silica also gives the plants better general desease resisitance and they need less staking out too, peace🙂

    Like

    • Blackthorn says:

      Hi Winston,

      Thanks for an excellent tip, horsetail is an excellent plant to have around the garden, it has so many uses!

      For spider mites, I found that Neem soap (liquid soap made from natural ingredients with oil from the Neem tree) works fairly well by suffocating them and disrupting their reproductive cycle. Another thing though, I learned to read nature’s signs, spider mites will attack plants that are weakened or sick, so check if the plants being attacked are in an unfavourable location (in terms of sufficient light or shade) and that the soil type and soil moisure levels are appropriate. I’ve found that relocting a plant yo a more favourable location can make a world of difference. Sometimes, actually often, the pests aren’t the problem, they’re the symptoms of a deeper underlying problem.

      Regards

      Like

  2. mike thomas says:

    great value wetting agent simple dident know it was that easy beats paying big dollars at the garden shops thanks keep up the good work

    Like

  3. anne says:

    Hi, thanks for sharing your wonderful garden, your knowledge and experience. It is simply inspirational. I have had a no chemical pesticides policy for the 10 years I have had my suburban block and small evolving permaculture and native garden. But now I have white ants in some old wood stored near my shed. I don’t want to use pesticides but I don’t want to lose my wooden floors. Any suggestions?

    Like

    • Blackthorn says:

      If it’s just old wood stored in the shed, the simplest solution would be to use it as firewood. The natural role of termites is to break down dead trees (wood/timer) to eventually return the organic matter back to the soil. Termites attacking the timber floors in your home would be a different matter altogether. Since we’re talking about indoor pest control rather than out in the garden, it’s a bit out of my area of knowledge. Preventative solutions for houses include using termite resistant timbers, construction methods which don’t place non-termite resistant timbers in direct contact with soil, etc. Outdoors, there are biological controls availables such such as nematodes which attack termites.

      Like

  4. Steve says:

    Love your website, your garden and your commitment to sharing knowlege and results. I was an organic back yard gardener and was about to increase the size of my garden when I found your site which has not only changed my new garden (which thankfully is nearly done) but also means redesigning my existing garden too, you are right it is a lot of work but all good stuff and cool to see what can be achieved out of a similar sized garden.
    Quick question, I have just noticed what the local garden centre advise is Verrucosis on an existing lemon and lime. They have recommended liquid copper which looks ok but thought I would check with my mentor (you) and see if you knew if ok and why this happens, what prevention if any is there?
    Anyway thanks, you are a legend and an inspiration.

    Like

    • Blackthorn says:

      Thanks for the great feedback and nice comments!

      Verrucosis (lemon scab) is a fungal disease that is more common in cool, wet summers. The damage is only cosmetic and doesn’t affect the fruit taste or quality. It is treated with a copper fungicide (copper hydroxide or copper oxychloride) which prevents the growth of the disease, the tree should be sprayed before, during and after and flowering. Infected fruit (and in advanced stages of infection, leaves and stems) are cut away and disposed of to prevent re-infection.

      Like

  5. June findlay says:

    Looking forward to trying your earwig traps this spring,as we have a big problem with them eating all our produce

    Like

  6. Suzanne says:

    So since the Castile soap is made from olive oil, can I use olive oil instead of vegetable oil in the Oil Spray?

    Like

  7. Suzanne says:

    Great, thanks for the reply. Love the site.

    Like

  8. Heidi Koonz says:

    What is “cloudy” ammonia, in your recipe for the slug spray? And is the Elder leaf referred to the Sambucus genus, any particular species? Thanks for all the great info!

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      ‘Cloudy ammonia’ also known as household ammonia is basically dilute ammonium hydroxide.

      Elder leaf is Sambucus nigra, though other Sambucus species such as Sambucus Canadensis will probably also work.

      Like

  9. Dilek says:

    While waiting for my next flight, found your site. I am just starting with my little permaculture projects. Learned so much, practical info, unbelievable. Amazing site. Well writen. Don’t know how to express my joy and gratitude.

    Like

  10. Beryn says:

    Many thanks for your generosity, we surely need to be good stewards of our environment. I cant express my joy enough, this is wonderful stuff.

    Like

  11. karencheah says:

    Will cloudy ammonia (used in the slug and snail spray) be harmful to animals that come in contact or eat the plants?

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      It will wash off into the soil, where it will become part of the nitrogen cycle, so it’s not persistent. When its on any plant, no animal will eat it, it smells of that characteristic ammonia smell which is unpleasant.

      Like

  12. karencheah says:

    Thanks for the info, Angelo!

    Like

  13. Pauline says:

    Have you published a book with your natural remedies? I make soap
    with Saponaria. This is a wonderful website.

    Like

  14. Martin says:

    In early summer I started with your slug an snail killer recipe. It works just fine, better than anything else. Since then I killed at least 6’000 slugs on a 200 m2 garden! Still, the slugs attack my plants. Sometimes it seems to be fiercer than ever, a real war. I noticed, that the big brown snails mostly disappeared, instead small black ones took over and sometimes there are more than 10 slugs on one leave. So, I have to assume, that the big ones at least kept the black ones in check, and I disturbed that balance with my killing.

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      Leopard slugs eat other slugs and snails, but snails are herbivorous and only eat plants, maybe the slugs now have more food!
      Sounds like you need a duck in your garden, and with a garden that big, you have space for them!

      Like

      • Martin says:

        Yes, ducks would be preferable. If only my family agrees. They want chickens.
        I killed 4 – 5 Leopard slugs before I learnt about their usefulness. They were so fearsome big. What do you mean with slugs having now more food?
        I also made heaps with branches and cuttings to attract hedgehogs and blindworms. But hedgehogs only pass by when walking trough several gardens. I presume they ignore the sprayed slugs because of the stink.

        Like

  15. Bob says:

    Borax is about as toxic as table salt. Excessive table salt ingestion can and will kill a person. So that means that salt is “a natural occurring mineral salt, but is poisonous when swallowed, not recommended for use in homes with children and / or pets.” We all know that is a bit silly. I make this point because many people demonize borax without realizing that many common household chemicals (some of them “natural”) are just as toxic and some are quite a bit more toxic than borax. But those chemicals seldom get the same amount of bad press as borax. And no, I do not work in the borax industry. Basically, borax is very safe to use. No, I wouldn’t want to eat the stuff. It actually tastes awful. But it is not at all dangerous to use around people or mammal pets.

    Like

  16. karencheah says:

    Do you have a recipe for dormant oil (or winter oil)? It doesn’t seem to be the same as white oil. Thanks!

    Like

  17. Justina says:

    Thank you for all the time you have taken to share your experience and wonderful permaculture garden with us all. It has been a huge inspiration to me as I begin planning my own small suburban garden.

    For the first time this winter (USA, hardiness zone 6), I have set up a small unheated greenhouse on my patio to overwinter some tender container-grown herbs and to grow/maintain some salad greens for winter consumption. Unfortunately, the salad greens are being nibbled on. I’ve caught one caterpillar and I don’t see any slug trails, so I’m guessing there are still more caterpillars hiding in the containers. Would you suggest any of your recipes above for this situation? Also, is the recipe for using Elder leaves for fresh or dried leaves? I don’t have fresh but could probably find dried. Many thanks!

    Like

    • Justina says:

      I think I’ve discovered at least one of the culprits: greenhouse millipede. Found several of them this evening hiding under a piece of cabbage that I put in each pot as a “trap”. I’ll try removing the mulch and venting the greenhouse better. Diatomaceous earth is also recommended for drying out the soil. I’d appreciate any advice you might have. Thank you.

      Like

  18. Oli Rusu says:

    I am BEYOND MAD with this article! I did the oil spray and I killed all my citrus trees! The oil is sticky and the leaf can’t breath anymore and is dying.. also the branches are dying. Please remove the part where you put any type of oil. It is ridiculous that you actually published this!

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      That is definitely not possible! You did follow the instructions?

      You do not use the homemade white oil straight on trees, you add a small amount to a lot of water – the instructions clearly say “To use, add 10ml per litre or water (two teaspoons per litre of water), put in a spray bottle, shake well. Now you can spray your plants or trees.” Commercial petroleum-based white oil is actually used at twice this strength of 20mL per L of water for scale insects.

      Also, you do not use the homemade white oil on a very hot day, as the instructions clearly warn “Note – use during mild weather, if you use it when the temperature is around 30 degrees Celsius or higher, it will damage your plants as the oil will clog the pores in the leaves. Morning or late evenings area a good time.”

      What soap did you use? Was it proper pure organic liquid castile soap which is made from olive oil? Do not use synthetic soaps, detergents, dishwashing liquids, or liquid soap scented with essential oils as these will burn the leaves.

      Like

  19. crystal says:

    Is there something to get rid of termites in potted plants?

    Like

  20. srinivasan says:

    Super pest management

    Like

  21. Donald Tucker says:

    What do you suggest for squash bugs?

    Like

  22. Paul says:

    At my job recently I have come in contact and been severely sick due to white hickory tussock caterpillar, the rash is horrible but the nausea has become unbearable, there are woods behind our office but it’s a very steep unclimbable hill, they probably come down off the hill and come down to where our company has break, I’m the 3rd yet most severe case at my job, is there something I can spray in our break area so we aren’t sick always?

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      Contact with the poisonous hairs of the Hickory tussock moth caterpillar causes skin rashes or possibly a hypersensitivity reaction. Don’t touch these fuzzy caterpillars!

      You can safely control these tussock moth caterpillars by spraying Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticide, sold as Dipel, Thuricide, and other brand names onto the leaves of the plants and trees that they are eating. BT is a naturally occurring soil bacteria, and its use as a caterpillar insecticide is certified for organic gardening. It will kill them in around three days. Make sure you don’t spray it if it’s going to rain in a few hours as the bacteria will get washed away before the caterpillars have a chance to ingest them.

      Like

  23. Isaac Pyle says:

    Wow, you’ve provided some great information here! Hey one question I have – My family lives on a farm in New Zealand and have been getting over-run by flies, I guess from all the cow patties in the paddocks nearby. I was wondering whether you know of any natural ways of combating this problem? Perhaps hedges of Tea Tree or Lavender might work?

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      In ancient England they used the herb Tansy as a fly repellent, you can use that and it should work great, it worked for medieval English peasants who didn’t have glass windows. You could also try lemon or citronella scented pelargoniums (often mistakenly called ‘scented geraniums’ – they’re related but mot the same).

      Like

  24. I work at a pest control company, and I am always looking to expand my knowledge on organic ways of ridding termite infestations. Really detailed stuff, might end up kicking me out of business someday. I was wondering, do any of these homemade sprays have damaging effects on small pets? Does not seam like they would since it is organic, but I thought I would make sure.

    Like

    • Angelo (admin) says:

      As long as people build timber structures in places where termites live, you’ll have plenty of work for a long time to come! The role of termites in nature is to break down fallen dead trees, they can’t distinguish between dead trees and dead trees (timber) that humans build things out of unfortunately!

      Yes, all these sprays are safe for the user, the environment and pets large and small. Obviously, with the chilli-wormwood spray, which has hot chillies in it, it’s not exactly anti-riot grade capsicum spray but be careful when spraying it!

      Like

  25. I found your web page while looking for a way to make my own garden sprays using natural ingredients instead of chemicals. I congratulate you on all the top information on your page & can’t wait start to make sprays & declare war on the many pests who visit our garden & cause us grief. Thank you so much a brilliant page. Also, a few words to Oli Rusu sounds to me this person did not follow the instructions correctly. “Grow Up Mate” read & follow instructions don’t blame someone else for your own mistakes.

    Like

  26. Billie Price says:

    I really appreciate all the info on your website. I have a second year to be planted pomegranite tree that has fruit for the first time. I am so excited but noticed black spots on them. I am going to try your fruit tree spray on it.

    Like

  27. J says:

    For those who ask about termites, Diatomaceous earth will kill them when they are dusted liberally. We had termites infesting a wooden window sill on the outside of our house, and we coated the window with the powder and got it into the cracks as well as we could. There were hundreds of them, and after the dusting, they were never seen again.

    Like

  28. Iona says:

    I have about 300 orange trees and I need to spray them for insects bugs etc. What would be the safest method of spray

    Like

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