Australian Native and Exotic Fire Resistant Trees and Plants for Fireproof Landscapes

IMG_20200127_180452-1-2

Fire protection is especially important in Australia, the driest continent in the world, which is plagued by periodic bushfires. These fires can burn uncontrollably in wilderness and rural areas, tearing through forests or grasslands, consuming dry combustible fuels which build up from prolonged dry weather and drought conditions, causing widespread destruction.

 

Understanding Bushfire Dangers

fire-risk-radiant-heat-embers

There are two main dangers that fires present which have to be taken into consideration when preparing your property to make it safer.

  1. Radiant heat is the heat you feel when standing near a fire, and It is the biggest killer in fires, and the best protection from radiant heat is distance.
  2. Ember attack is the most common way houses catch fire during bushfires, when burning twigs, leaves and pieces of debris are carried by the wind and land on or around houses, especially into gutters filled with leaves.

To reduce fire risk its important to reduce radiant heat and stop any embers blowing in the wind from reaching a house.

 

How Does a Fire Shelter Belt Reduces Fire Risk?

A fire shelter belt is a barrier of trees, shrubs and ground cover plants located strategically to reduce radiant heat and the chance of ember attack on a house.

  1. Fire retardant plants and trees are able to act as radiant heat screens and absorb more of the heat of an approaching fire without burning.
  2. Fire retardant trees are able reduce wind speed near a house and also trap embers and sparks carried by the wind.
  3. Fire retardant ground covers are able to catch burning embers without catching fire themselves, and also slow the travel of a fire through debris and litter on the ground.

It’s important to note that no plant is fireproof and any plant can burn given enough heat and the right conditions, but many plants and trees are either fire retardant, in that they don’t tend to burn, depriving the fire of fuel, or at least fire resistant, being difficult to ignite.

Equally important, nearly all plants and trees used to reduce fire risk may require maintenance such as the removal of loose bark, dead branches, and dry leaf litter on the ground in accordance with fire authority requirements for bushfire prevention.

 

Locating a Fire Shelter Belt

We can use nature’s resources to minimise risk, and work towards a strategy of fire prevention and damage reduction.

One way to do this is to select appropriate fire retardant/resistant plants and trees, and locate them to create a shelter belt, which is planted at the boundary of the house.

Between the shelter belt and the house, there should be a minimum of 30m distance all round of clear space where all flammable materials have been removed.

The shelter belt is located on the side where incoming fires threaten, such as the direction of the side of a hill, or incoming winds, or bushland.

Please note that this is a simplified example to illustrate the concept of shelter belts and NOT a guide to site landscape design for fire protection, as each site will be different and therefore require a different set of safety measures!

 

fire-prevention-shelter-belt

 

Fire resistant/fire retardant trees and plants can also be used in general garden design around properties exposed to fire risk. There is a large enough variety of plants to be able to design almost any style of garden which will not catch fire easily!

 

Fire Retardant Plants

There are many varieties of trees, shrubs and ground covers that are less likely to catch alight and burn in a bushfire, which resist intense burning and/or have less chance of contributing to ember attacks.

These plants and trees have a number of distinguishable features:

  1. High salt content, such as Atriplex, Rhagodia, Tamarix, Eucalytpus occidentalis, Eucalytpus sargentii.
  2. Fleshy or watery leaves, such as cacti and succulents.
  3. Leaves with high water content and a low volatile oil content, such as most exotic deciduous shrubs and trees.
  4. Trees with thick, well-defined, insulating bark.
  5. Trees which have only a few branches growing low to the ground.
  6. Trees with dense crowns.
  7. Trees and shrubs which rarely shed large quantities of leaves and twigs, with seeds usually enclosed in woody capsules.

It should be pointed out that in very intense fires even fire-retardant plants may burn, but they are chosen because they are highly resistant to burning and for their ability to reduce airborne embers. When such plants are used together with landscaping methods which reduce fire risk, they can effectively reduce the risk of fire or the damage caused.

 

Highly Flammable Plants and Trees to Avoid

Plants which are more likely to burn include:

  1. Those with fibrous, loose bark, such as Stringybark eucalypts.
  2. Those with volatile oils in their leaves, such as most eucalypts, callistemons, melaleucas.
  3. Those with volatile, resinous foliage, such as many conifers.
  4. Those with dry foliage.
  5. Those which retain or accumulate dead leaves and twigs.

Eucalypts and  pines can accelerate fire and cause them to burn more ferociously burn because they release volatile oils which can spontaneously ignite at temperatures above 60 degrees Celsius, which is not that high a temperature!

A case in point is the infamous Tasmanian blue gums, Eucalyptus globulus, described as one of the most fire-intensive plants, nicknamed the ‘gasoline tree’ in the US, it puts plenty of fuel on the ground in the form of dry bark, leaves and twigs. In intense fires, the high concentration of flammable compounds in the foliage become volatile and cause explosive burning.

 

Using the Fireproof Landscape Plant Lists

Many of the plants and trees which can be used to create fire shelter belts and fire resistant gardens are listed below, sorted by various categories.

The Australian native plant lists include detailed growing requirements, size, growth habit, and other additional useful information, such as whether they attract native fauna, or can be used for environmental reclamation.

The exotic (non-Australian plants for international readers) only list the botanical and common names, as their requirements and specifications are quite well known.

There are over 170 species covered in these lists, sorted into the categories of trees, shrubs, groundcovers, strappy-leaved plants and climbers.

 

Disclaimer: This information is provided in good faith, and by using this plant selection information you understand that the authors who have compiled this information and original sources cannot not be held liable for damage or loss incurred due to a fire, as all plants can burn under the right conditions.

 

Australian Trees That Are Fire Retardant

  1. Acacia cyclops – Coastal Wattle, Family Mimosaceae, slow growing, dense, evergreen bushy shrub, often multi-stemmed, height 3m x 3m wide, or small tree 3 to 8m tall, in windy coastal locations forms hedge less than 0.5m high. Tolerates coastal conditions, grows in sandy soils and is used to stabilise sand dunes, prefers well-drained soil but will also handle waterlogged clay soil, requires full sun, does not tolerate being shaded, spreads easily by seed, attracts birds and butterflies.
  2. Banksia marginata – Silver Banksia, Family Proteaceae, small tree, height 5 x 4m wide, tolerant of coastal conditions, evergreen informal screening plant or feature tree, tolerates coastal conditions, fairly fast growing, drought resistant, does well in exposed windy locations, prefers well-drained soils in a full sun position, but can tolerate part shade and some waterlogging, attracts nectar eating birds and cockatoos.
  3. Casuarina obesa – Swamp Sheoak, Family: Casuarinaceae, moderate to fast growing tree, 10m tall x 5m wide, drought tolerant, can be used as a windbreak or for erosion control, one of the most salt-tolerant trees, fixes nitrogen in the soil, will grow in range of soils from well-drained sand to waterlogged clay, excellent timber for agroforestry.
  4. Eucalyptus sargentii – Salt River Gum, Family: Myrtaceae, fast growing tree, 5-10m tall x 4-7m wide, moderate to high salinity tolerance, one of the most salt tolerant eucalypts, used as a windbreak or shade tree, erosion control in alpine areas, grows in a range of soils from sand to clay, tolerates dry soils and some waterlogging.
  5. Syzygium smithii (syn. Acmena smithii) – Lilly Pilly, Family: Myrtaceae, large tree, height 10m x 4-6m wide, 15 -20m tall in the wild, moderate to fast growing, evergreen screening plant, feature tree or formal hedge, windbreak, tolerates coastal conditions, salt tolerant, frost hardy, drought tolerant, prefers moist well drained soils but can grow in most soils, full sun to part shade, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds, and seed eating birds.

 

Non-Australian Trees That Are Fire Retardant

Many deciduous trees and shrubs are fire retarding because they have high moisture content in their leaves, and they don’t contain the flammable oils which accelerate fire. When hot glowing embers touch get caught in their foliage, the water filled leaves cool the embers down and extinguish them. Even though the leaves may get scorched, they will not ignite.

  1. Acer campestre – Common Maple
  2. Acer negundo – Box Elder Maple
  3. Acer plantoides – Norway Maple
  4. Acer speudoplantanus – Sycamore
  5. Aesculus hippocastanum – Horse Chestnut
  6. Alnus jorullensis – Evergreen Alder
  7. Calandendrum capense – Cape Chestnut
  8. Castanea dentata – American Chestnut
  9. Castanea sativa – Sweet Chestnut
  10. Ceratonia siliqua – Carob
  11. Cercis siliquastrum – Judas Tree
  12. Chamaecytisus proliferus – Tagasaste, Tree Lucerne
  13. Coprosma repens – Mirror Bush
  14. Cornus capitata – Evergreen Dogwood
  15. Elaeagnus angustifolio – Russian Olive
  16. Fagus sylvatica – Common Beech
  17. Fraxinus species – Ash
  18. Juglans nigra – Black Walnut
  19. Laurus nobilis – Laurel
  20. Ligustrum species – Privet
  21. Liriodendron tulipifera – Tulip Tree
  22. Liquidambar styracifua – Liquidamber
  23. Morus species – Mulberry
  24. Olea europeae – Olive
  25. Photinia glabra – Red Leaf Photinia
  26. Photinia serrulata – Chinese Hawthorn
  27. Pittosporum eugenioides – Tarata
  28. Plantanus orientalis – Plane
  29. Populus species – Poplar
  30. Prunus laurocerasus – Cherry Laurel
  31. Prunua lusitanica – Portugal Laurel
  32. Quercus canariensis – Algerian Oak
  33. Quercus cerris – Turkey Oak
  34. Quercus iles – Holm Oak
  35. Quercus robur – English Oak
  36. Salix babylonica – Weeping Willow
  37. Schinus molle – Pepper Tree, Peppercorn Tree
  38. Sorbus aucuparia – Rowan
  39. Tamarix aphylla – Athel Pine
  40. Tilia vulgaris – Linden
  41. Ulmus species – Elm

 

Australian Trees and Shrubs That Are Hard to Burn

  1. Acacia baileyana – Cootamundra Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, small tree, height 6-8m x 3-5m wide, very fast growing, short-lived evergreen perennial screening plant or feature tree, windbreak, moderately drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, self-seeds readily, suitable for a wide range of soils, prefers well-draining soils and full sun, attracts bees and seed-eating birds.
  2. Acacia cognata – River Wattle, Bower Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, small tree, height 6-8m x 6m wide, evergreen informal screening plant with weeping habit, feature tree, tolerant of coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, prefers moist soils, grows very well in dappled shade. Can handle most soil types including sandy loam and clay, drought and frost tolerant, bird attracting.
  3. Acacia dealbata – Silver Wattle, (also referred to as Blue wattle or Mimosa outside of Australia), Family: Mimosaceae, large shrub or medium tree, height 6-30m x 5-10m wide, evergreen informal screening plant, windbreak, full sun, attracts bees and butterflies.
  4. Acacia glandulicarpa – Hairy Pod Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, dense spreading shrub, height 1-2m x 3m wide, grow in in most soils, performs well on coast and tablelands, full sun, bird attracting.
  5. Acacia howitii – Sticky Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, large shrub or small tree with dense weeping habit, height 4-8 m x 3-6m wide, fast-growing, screening, hedging and feature plant, grows in sun or shade, tolerant of coastal conditions, drought-tolerant, attracts seed-eating birds.
  6. Acacia iteaphulla – Flinders Range Wattle, Willow leaf Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, large shrub, height 3-5m x 3-6m wide, evergreen weeping screening plant, windbreak, grows in dry, well-drained soil and full sun, attracts bees and butterflies.
  7. Acacia melanoxylon – Blackwood, Family: Mimosaceae, large tree, height 12-15m x 5m wide, can grow as high as 30m in protected areas, evergreen shade tree, tolerant of coastal conditions, timber tree. Prefers rich, moist well drained soil in a sheltered position, dislikes compacted soils, bird attracting.
  8. Acacia pravissima – Ovens Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, large shrub or small tree, height4-8m x 4-8m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, evergreen screening plant, feature tree, windbreak, erosion control, fast-growing, tolerates light frost, grows in dry, well-drained soil and full sun to light shade, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, seed eating birds.
  9. Acacia prominens – Golden Rain Wattle, Gosford Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, dense tall shrub or medium tree, height 5-9m x 4m wide, but some specimens can grow to 20m x 15m wide, fast growing, prefers moist loam and clay soils as it normally grows in wet sclerophyll forest, along rainforest edges and creek banks. Tolerates most soils and locations as long as the position is in the open. food plant of several caterpillar species.
  10. Acacia saligna – Golden Wreath Wattle, Orange Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, dense, bushy shrubs or small trees 3-8 m high, very fast growing, tolerates coastal conditions, hardy ornamental or small shade tree, tall background plant, screening plant or hedge, windbreak or shelter-belt, will grow in a sunny position on most soil types, tolerates relatively dry, low nutrient soils, used for soil stabilisation and grows well in sand, spreads easily by seed.
  11. Acacia sophorae (Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae)- Coastal Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, prostrate shrub, height 0.5-3m x 2-4m wide, very spreading habit, grows lower in exposed coastal areas, large shrub to 2-5m high in protected locations. Evergreen screening plant, tolerates coastal conditions, very fast-growing species that thrives in sand dunes, grows in sandy soils, planted as a sand-binder to prevent erosion, adaptable to most soils, source of bush tucker edible seeds ‘Wattleseed’, full sun to part shade, insect and bird attracting.
  12. Acacia terminalis – Cedar Wattle, Family: Mimosaceae, small to large shrub, small tree, height: 1.5-6m x 1-1.5m wide, fast growing evergreen screening plant, feature tree, windbreak, tolerates light frost, erosion control, prefers well-draining soils, full sun to light shade, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, seed eating birds.
  13. Acacia verstita – Hairy Wattle, Weeping Boree, Family: Mimosaceae, large shrub height 3-6m x 3-5m wide, fast-growing evergreen screening plant hedge or windbreak, drought tolerant, used for erosion control, full sun, well-drained positions in most soils, attracts bees and butterflies.
  14. Adenanthos sericea – Woolly Bush, Family: Proteaceae, tall shrub, height 3.5m x 1.5m, evergreen weeping informal screening plant, feature tree or can be hedged, very drought tolerant and low maintenance, requires very little water, prefers hot dry climate.
  15. Alectryon oleifolius (syn.Heterodendrum oleifolium) – Cattlebush, Bullock-Bush, Boonaree, Western Rosewood, Family: Sapindaceae, large shrub to medium-size tree, height 1-6m up to 9 m, windbreak , drought tolerant, attracts seed eating birds.
  16. Angophora costata – Smoothbarked Apple Myrtle, Apple Jack, Rusty Gum, Sydney Red Gum, Family: Myrtaceae, large tree, height 20m x 12m wide, evergreen shade tree, feature tree, windbreak, erosion control, tolerates light frost, tolerant of coastal conditions as well as most soil types, grows well in sandy dry areas and prefers full sun, honey producing plant, bird nesting plant, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  17. Atriplex nummularia – Old Man Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae,small shrub, height 1-3m x 2-5m wide, deciduous, screening plant, drought-resistant, tolerates light frost, windbreak, edible plant, full sun.
  18. Brachychiton acerifolius – Illawarra Flame Tree, Family Sterculiaceae, large tree, height 12m x 6m wide, deciduous shade tree, feature tree, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, prefers well drained fertile soil in full sun, grows in most soils from heavy soils to rocky infertile soils, edible seeds, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, nectar eating birds.
  19. Brachychiton populneus– Kurrajong, Family Sterculiaceae, small tree, height 10-20m x 3-6m wide, evergreen, dense feature plant or windbreak, shade tree, full sun, tolerates light to heavy frost, tolerates very dry conditions in most soils, including poor soils, attracts bees, butterflies and seed eating birds.
  20. Casuarina cristate – Belah, Black Oak, Family: Casuarinaceae, tall tree, height 10-20m, fast growing, moderate salinity tolerance, dioecious (separate male and female trees), windbreak, may sucker from the roots, can grow in poor soils, grows in heavy alkaline clay soils as well as well-drained loamy soils.
  21. Casuarina cunninghamiana – River She Oak, Australian Beefwood, Family: Casuarinaceae, tall narrow tree, height 15-35m x 8-10m wide, fast growing, dioecious (separate male and female trees), slight to moderate salinty tolerance, windbreak, low to moderate drought tolerance, more drought tolerant once established, prefers moist well-draining soils, can tolerate waterlogging and compacted soils, will grow in sandy soils and clay soils, suitable for erosion control, can be pruned and coppiced, full sun to part shade.
  22. Correa alba – White Correa, Family: Rutaceae, small shrub, height to 1.5 m, evergreen hedging or border plant, full sun to light shade, sandy or well-draining soils, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, attracts other insects, nectar eating birds.
  23. Correa calycina – Hindmarsh Correa, Family: Rutaceae, medium shrub, height up to 2.5m x 2m wide, attracts nectar eating birds.
  24. Correa glabra var. turnbullii – Narrow-bell Correa, Family: Rutaceae, small shrub, height 1-2m x 1-2m wide, attracts nectar eating birds.
  25. Correa lawrenciana – Mountain Correa, Family: Rutaceae, small shrub or tree depending on the variety: var. cordifolia: tree or shrub, height to 5m; var. genoensis: shrub, height to 2m; var. latrobeana: shrub or tree, height to 16m; var. macrocalyx: shrub or tree, height to 4.5m; var. rosea: shrub height to 2.5m high, attracts nectar eating birds.
  26. Correa reflexa – Native Fuchsia, Family: Rutaceae, small shrub, height 0.5-1.2m x 0.5-1m wide, evergreen groundcover or border plant, tolerates light frost, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, grows in full sun, light shade, part shade, in well-draining soils, attracts other insects, nectar eating birds.
  27. Cupaniopsis anarcardiodes– Tuckeroo, Beach Tamarind, Family: Sapindaceae, small tree, height 8-15m x 3-5m wide, evergreen shade or screening tree, feature tree, slow to medium growth rate, tolerant of coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, drought resistant once established, can grow in all soil types, including clay. Full sun to part shade, free draining soil rich in organic matter, attracts bees, other insects.
  28. Elaeocarpus reticulatus – Blueberry Ash, Family: Elaeocarpaceae, medium tree, height 7-9m x 4m wide, 10-15m x 5m in the wild, fast growing evergreen informal screening plant or windbreak, can be pruned into a large shrub, specimen tree, tolerant of coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, prefers moist, well drained, fairly fertile soil. Full sun or part-shade position, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds, and seed eating birds.
  29. Enchylaena tomentosa – Ruby Saltbush, Family: Amaranthaceous, very drought tolerant evergreen ground cover or small shrub, height 0.4-1m x 0.5-1m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates light to heavy frost, erosion control, can grow in grow on saline soils, saltmarsh, sand dunes, and poor soils, full sun to part shade, edible berries, attracts seed eating birds.
  30. Eremophila spp – Emu Bush, Poverty Bush, Family: Scrophulariaceous, small to large shrub, height 1-4m x 1-3m, upright evergreen shrub, hedging or screening plant, windbreak, very drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, grows in arid light and sandy soils and poor soils with good drainage, attracts bees, nectar eating birds.
  31. Corymbia maculata (syn. Eucalyptus maculata) – Spotted Gum, Family: Myrtaceae, very tall tree, height 35-45m x 10m wide, evergreen feature tree, shade tree, medium growth rate, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates heavy frost, drought tolerant, grows in light to heavy soils in an open, sunny position, important tree for construction timber production and winter honey production, attracts bees and nectar-eating birds.
  32. Ficus macrophylla – Moreton Bay Fig, Family: Moraceae, large spreading tree, 15-35m x 15-25m in garden, 35-55m x 25-45m in rainforest, subtropical/tropical, frost tender, shade tree, far too large for a suburban garden and vigorous root system may damage paths and house foundations, fast growing when young, slows with age, grows in full sun in a wide range of soil types, prefers rich, well-draining soil with adequate moisture, attracts flying foxes (fruit bats).
  33. Goodenia albiflora – White Goodenia, Family: Goodeniaceae, small shrub, height 0.5-0.7m x 0.4-0.6m wide, tolerates light frost, erosion control, prefers sandy, well-drained soils in full sun, attracts butterflies, other insects.
  34. Goodenia ovata – Hop Goodenia, Family: Goodeniaceae, small shrub, height 1-2m x 2m wide, fast growing evergreen shrub, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, full sun to part shade in well-drained soils, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  35. Grevillea aquifolium – Prickly Grevillia,Holly Grevillia, Family: Proteaceae, variable prostrate scrambling plant or small shrub, height 1-2m, full sun to part shade in well-draining soils, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, does not tolerate coastal conditions or high humidity, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  36. Grevillea barklyana – Gully Grevillia, Family: Proteaceae, small tree, height 8-10m x 3m wide, evergreen feature tree, tolerates coastal conditions, full sun to part shade in well-draining soil, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  37. Grevillea robusta – Silky Oak, Family: Proteaceae, large tree, height 10-30m x 5-20m wide, fast-growing evergreen screening plant or windbreak, shade tree, stream and river bank erosion control, reclamation of pastoral land, drought resistant, tolerates coastal conditions, full sun to light shade in well-draining soils, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  38. Grevillea victoriae– Royal Grevillea, Family: Proteaceae, small shrub, height 1.8m x 3m, wind tolerant, full sun to light shade in well-draining soils, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  39. Hakea drupacea (syn. Hakea suaveolens) – Sweet Hakea, Family: Proteaceae, shrub, height 1-4m x 1-4m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, border, screening or hedge plant with slightly prickly leaves, drought tolerant, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  40. Hakea elliptica – Oval leaf Hakea, Family: Proteaceae, shrub, height 2-4m x 2.5m wide, dense screening plant, hedge, fast growing, prefers light clay to sandy soils, grows in most soils with good drainage, tolerates lime soils, drought tolerant, full sun to part shade, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  41. Hakea smilacifolia – Willow Hakea, Family: Proteaceae, small shrub, height 1-2m x 1m wide, prefers a well-drained soil in an open sunny position, drought tolerant, sensitive to phosphorus fertilizers, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  42. Hymenosporum flavum – Native Frangipani, Family: Pittosporaceae, small tree, height 6-8m x 5-6m wide, fast-growing, evergreen spreading feature tree, hedge, screening plant, scented flowers, erosion control, tolerates light frost, prefers a well-drained fertile soil to moist, moderate draining soil, tolerant of various of soils, can grow in shade position but flowers best in full sun, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.
  43. Lagunaria patersonii – Norfolk Island Hibiscus,Cow Itch Tree, Family: Malvaceae, medium tree, height 7m x 4m wide, can reach 12-20m in height under certain conditions, tolerates coastal condition, evergreen screening plant or feature tree, windbreak, prefers well drained soils in a sunny position but will grow in poor, sandy soils. Flowers produce seed pods that contain irritant hair inside.
  44. Melaleuca lanceolata – Moonah, Dryland Tea-tree, Black Tea-tree, Family: Myrtaceae, small tree, height 7m x 5m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, windbreak, shade or ornamental tree, tolerate most soil conditions, Prefers alkaline, well drained soil in a full sun position, tolerates salinity and periodic waterlogging, attracts bees, nectar eating birds.
  45. Melia azedarach – White Cedar, Persian Lilac, Chinaberry, Umbrella Tree, Family: Meliaceae, medium tree, height 10m x 8m wide, deciduous, feature tree, shade tree, timber tree, tolerant of most soil types, prefers most soils in a sunny position.
  46. Myoporum acuminatum – Waterbush, Pointed Boobialla , Mangrove Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae,  tall shrub, height 3-4m x 2-3m wide, or small tree, height to 13m, tolerates coastal conditions, salinity and long dry periods, full sun to part shade, attracts fruit eating birds.
  47. Myoporum insulare – Coastal Boobialla, Common Boobialla, Native Juniper, Blueberry Tree, Family: Scrophulariaceae, variable prostrate to tall shrub 3-5m x 3-5m or small tree to 6m, fast-growing hedge or windbreak, prefers well drained soils in full sun semi-shaded location, drought tolerant once established, tolerates salinity, damaged by moderate to heavy frosts, tolerates coastal conditions, produces edible fruit, attracts fruit eating birds.
  48. Myoporum montanum – Boobialla, Native Myrtle, Water Bush, Western Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae, large shrub height 2-3m or small tree height up to 8m, evergreen fast-growing screening plant, tolerates coastal conditions, can be lightly pruned, bird and butterfly attracting, bird habitat.
  49. Myoporum petiolatum – Sticky Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae, small shrub, height 0.5-2m x 2m wide, full sun, well-draining soils, often confused with much less common species Myoporum viscosum.
  50. Myoporum viscosum – Sticky Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae, dense small to medium shrub, height 1-2m x 2-4m wide, fast growing low screening or hedge plant, can be lightly pruned, low maintenance, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control and bank stabilisation, prefers full sun in well drained soil, will grow in most soil types.
  51. Nitraria billardieri – Dillon Bush, Nitre Bush, Family: Nitrariaceae, low broad spreading shrub, height 1-2 m x 3-5m wide, prefers light to medium well-drained soil in open sunny position, can grow in clay soils, tolerates salinity, tolerates coastal conditions, grows on coastal dunes, drought tolerant, moderate frost tolerance, used for soil erosion control and reclamation, produces edible fruit, can can be pruned heavily, spiny foliage habitat plant and food source for birds, lizards and small mammals.
  52. Olearia species – Daisy-Bush, Family: Asteraceae, around 130 species of small shrubs to small trees, evergreen, large tree varieties tolerates coastal conditions and are used as screening trees, attract bees, butterflies, beneficial insects.
  53. Philotheca species – Wax Flower, Family: Rutaceae, small to large shrubs, size varies depending on species height 0.3-1.5m x 0.3-1.5m wide, full sun to light shade in well-draining soils, attract bees, butterflies.
  54. Prostanthera ovalifolia – Oval Leaved Mint Bush, Family: Lamiaceae, small shrub to large shrub, height 1.5-5m x 1.5-4m wide, fast growing evergreen with fragrant foliage, feature plant, screening plant, windbreak, full sun to light shade in well-draining soil, attracts bees and butterflies.
  55. Rhagodia candolleana – Seaberry Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, low spreading shrub, height to 1.2m or erect shrub, height to 4m, dioecious (separate male and female plants), evergreen windbreak, erosion control, can grow in most soil types and on coastal sand dunes, habitat plant, tolerates coastal conditions, moderately frost tolerant, bush food plant small red berries eaten raw, food source and habitat refuge for small birds, lizards and small mammals.
  56. Rhagodia parabolica  – Fragrant Saltbush, Mealy Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, small shrub height 1-1.2m x 1.5-2m wide to medium shrub, height up to 3.6m, evergreen windbreak, erosion control, drought tolerant, moderate frost tolerance, dioecious (separate male and female plants), prefers loam to sandy soils in full sun, requires very good drainage, bush food plant edible leaves, produces small red fruit, food source and habitat refuge for small birds, lizards and small mammals.
  57. Rhagodia spinescens – Spiny Saltbush, Thorny Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, small to large shrub, height 0.5-1.5m x 1.5-4m wide, full sun to light shade or part shade in well-draining soils, hedging plant, fire retardant, windbreak, erosion control, dioecious (separate male and female plants), bird nesting plant, thorny protective habitat plant, attracts mammals and lizards.
  58. Scaevola crassifolia – Thick-leaved Fan Flower, Family: Goodeniaceae, small shrub, height 1-1.5m x 2m wide, attracts butterflies.
  59. Scaevola porocarya – Striate-fruited Scaevola, Family: Goodeniaceae, narrow ascending shrub, height 0.2-1.5m, attracts butterflies.
  60. Syzygium australe – Lilly Pilly, Brush Cherry, Family: Myrtaceae, medium tree, height 8m x 6m wide, evergreen fast-growing screening plant or formal hedge, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, prefers moist well drained soils but can grow in most soils, full sun to part shade, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds, and seed eating birds.
  61. Syzygium smithii (syn. Acmena smithii) – Lilly Pilly, Family: Myrtaceae, large tree, height 10m x 4-6m wide, evergreen screening plant, feature tree or formal hedge, windbreak, tolerates coastal conditions, salt tolerant, frost hardy, drought tolerant, prefers moist well drained soils but can grow in most soils, full sun to part shade, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds, and seed eating birds.
  62. Taxandria juniperina (syn. Agonis juniperina) – Juniper Myrtle, Family: Myrtaceae, tall shrub, height 7m x 3m, up to 13m high in the wild, very fast growing, feature plant or light screening, tolerates coastal conditions, frost tender, can grow in full sun but prefers dappled or part shade and well-drained soils, attracts birds and bees.
  63. Tristania conferta (syn.Lophostemon confertus) – Queensland Brush Box, Family: Myrtaceae, large tree, height 15 x 10m wide, fast-growing evergreen shade, screening or feature tree, prefers well drained, sandy/loam soils and full sun, can tolerate poor drainage, drought tolerant once established, windbreak, erosion control, honey producing plant, bird nesting plant, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  64. Tristaniopsis laurina – Water Gum, Kanooka Gum, Family: Myrtaceae, large tree, height 12-15 x 4-6m wide, evergreen shade tree, feature tree, screening plant, windbreak, can be pruned to shape, tolerates most well drained soils, prefers moderate levels of watering and full sun but can tolerate light shade, attracts bees, butterflies, nectar eating birds.
  65. Viminaria juncea – Native Broom, Golden Spray, Family: Fabaceae, slender erect weeping shrub to small tree, height 2.5-5m x 2-2.5m wide, fast growing plant ideal for wet areas, prefers poorly drained soils in swamps and depressions, adaptable to drier conditions if watered in summer, grows in full sun to part shade.

 

Non-Australian Trees and Shrubs that are hard to burn

  1. Azaleas
  2. Camellias
  3. Rhododendrons
  4. Hibiscus
  5. Ficus species – Fig

 

Non-Australian Strappy Leaf Plants That Are Hard to Burn

IMG_20200119_155603-Edit-1

  1. Agapanthus species – Lily of the Nile, African Blue Lily, and African Lily, Family: Amaryllidaceae, perennial clumping plant, height to 1.2m, weed control, fire retardant border, erosion control on steep banks, grows in most locations, tolerates drought and mild frosts, full sun to part shade, can spread by seed, attracts bees. Popular in permaculture designs as a low firebreak used near house to catch wind-blown embers, typically grown in a 3m (10’) wide strip for this purpose.

 

Australian Strappy Leaf Plants That Are Hard to Burn

  1. Anigozanthos species – Kangaroo Paw, Family: Haemodoraceae, perennial clumping plant, height 30cm-2m depending on variety, drought resistant, prefers well drained soil, frost tender, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, nectar eating birds.
  2. Arthropodium strictum – Chocolate Lily, Family: Asparagaceae, height 50cm x 30cm wide, perennial but dies down to root in summer.
  3. Bulbine bulbosa – Bulbine Lily, Family: Asphodelaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.5-0.8m x 0.3-0.8m wide, tolerates light frost, prefers to be kept moist, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.
  4. Bulbine semibarbata – Leek Lily, Native Leek, Wild Onion, Family: Asphodelaceae, annual plant, height 30cm.
  5. Dianella caerulea– Blue Flax Lily, Paroo Lily, Family: Asphodelaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.5m, tolerates coastal conditions, frost and drought resistant once established, erosion control, edible bright blue berries, attracts seed eating birds.
  6. Dianella longifolia – Pale Flax Lily, Family: Asphodelaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 1.2m, tolerates coastal conditions, frost and drought resistant once established, erosion control, can grow in poor soils, attracts bees, other insects.
  7. Dianella revoluta – Black Anther Flax Lily, Family: Asphodelaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.3-0.8m, drought tolerant, tolerates coastal conditions, frost tolerant, erosion control, prefers dry, well-drained soils in full sun to light shade, attracts bees, seed eating birds.
  8. Dianella tasmanica – Tasman Flax Lily, Family: Asphodelaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.5-1.5m, tolerates coastal conditions, frost and drought resistant once established, erosion control, can grow in poor soils, tolerant of shade and moisture, grows well in cooler climates, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, seed eating birds.
  9. Doryanthes excelsa – Gymea Lily, Family: Doryanthaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 1m, feature plant, screening plant, windbreak, erosion control, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, prefers a deep, well drained soil in full sun to part shade, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, nectar eating birds.
  10. Doryanthes palmeri – Giant Spear Lily, Family: Doryanthaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 2-3m, feature plant, screening plant, windbreak, erosion control, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, prefers a deep, well drained soil in full sun to part shade, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects, nectar eating birds.
  11. Lomandra hystrix – Mat Rush, Family: Asparagaceae, height 1m x 1m wide, fast growing, tolerates most soil types and conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, tolerates coastal conditions, grows in dry well-draining soils to boggy, poorly-draining soils, ideal for erosion protection on banks, can grow in poor soils, suitable for rain gardens, dense growth suppresses weeds, full sun to heavy shade, attracts bees, other insects, lizards.
  12. Lomandra longifolia -Spiny-head Mat-Rush, Basket Grass, Family: Asparagaceae, height 1.2m x 1m wide, tolerates most soil types and conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, tolerates coastal conditions, grows in dry, well-drained soils to moist moderate-draining soils, dislikes prolonged wet conditions, full sun to light shade, ideal for erosion protection on banks, attracts bees, other insects.
  13. Orthrosanthus species – Morning Iris, Morning Flag, Family: Iridaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.5-1m x 0.5-1m wide, prefers part shade but will tolerate full sun, tolerates light frost, erosion control, grows in well-drained soils to moist moderate-draining soils, attracts bees, butterflies.
  14. Patersonia species – Native Iris, Purple Flag, Family: Iridaceae, perennial clumping plant, height 0.4-0.6m x 0.3-0.5m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, drought resistant, tolerates light frost, full sun to light shade in dry, well-draining soils, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.

 

Australian Ground Cover Plants That Are Hard to Burn

  1. Ajuga australis – Austral Bugle, Family: Lamiaceae, dense growing ground cover, height 0.3-0.5m x 0.5-3m wide, can grow in shady spots under trees and shrubs, fast growing, tolerates coastal conditions, drought resistant once established, tolerates light frost, light shade to heavy shade in most soil types, attracts other insects.
  2. Atriplex cinerea – Coastal Saltbush, Grey Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, erect to spreading shrub, height 0.2-1.5m high x 2m wide, dioecious (separate male and female plants), low maintenance evergreen groundcover plant, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, used extensively for stabilising sandy soil, tolerates salinity, moderately frost sensitive, drought hardy, prefers full sun, can grow as an understory under trees including gum trees, bush food plant with edible leaves.
  3. Atriplex semibaccata – Creeping Saltbush, Berry Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, low growing groundcover, height 15-30cm x 1-2m wide, low maintenance evergreen groundcover plant, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control and mine site rehabilitation, tolerates clay soils, tolerates the most difficult soils on the most exposed sites, prefers full sun, foliage is used as stock fodder during drought periods, red edible berries in spring and summer used for making jam.
  4. Carpobrotus rossii – Pigface, Family: Aizoaceae, fast-growing succulent groundcover, height 0.2-0.4m x 1-3m wide, fast-growing evergreen groundcover, erosion control, used to stabilise sand dunes, grows in sandy and poor soils, tolerates coastal conditions, drought resistant, tolerates light frosts, prefers well-drained soils in full sun to part shade, bees, butterflies, other insects.
  5. Dichondra repens – Kidney Weed, Family: Convolvulaceae, fast-growing creeping groundcover, height 0.1-0.3m x 1-5m wide, fast-growing evergreen spreading groundcover or lawn alternative, prefers most clay soils and light shade, will grow in drier conditions if watered, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, drought resistant, will grow in poor soils, well-drained to moist soils with moderate drainage in full sun to heavy shade.
  6. Einadia nutans – Nodding Saltbush, Climbing Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, prostrate, sprawling to semi-climbing groundcover plant, height 10cm, width 1.2m, can climb low fences or over obstacles to 1m, very useful for direct seeding on hostile sites to coloniser bare ground rapidly, grows well as a dense mat-forming understory under large trees, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates salinity, prefers moist well-drained soil in full sun to part shade, produces small juicy edible red berries in autumn which are an important food source for birds, lizards and animals.
  7. Enchylaena tomentosa – Ruby Saltbush, Family: Amaranthaceae, ground cover or small shrub, height 0.4-1m x 0.5-1m, very drought tolerant, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, tolerates light to heavy frost, may not be suitable for high humidity areas, tolerates salinity, can grow in dry, well drained soils to most, moderately draining soils, can  grow in poor soils, clay soils, salt marshes and sand dunes, full sun to light shade, foliage is used as stock fodder during drought periods, bush food plant with small edible red berries, attracts seed eating birds.
  8. Hibbertia scandens – Guinea Flower, Snake Vine, Golden Guinea Vine, Family: Dilleniaceae, fast-growing evergreen twining ground cover plant, climber, height 0.5-3m x 1-5m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates light frost, drought tolerant once established, tolerates very sandy soils, tolerates salinity, erosion control, full sun to part shade in dry, well-drained to moist, moderately drained soils, grows in most soil types and poor soils, attracts bees, butterflies, lizards.
  9. Isotoma species – Rock Isotome, Showy Isotome, Blue Stars, Australian Harebell, Family: Lobeliaceae, low-growing herbaceous flowering groundcover and border plant, height 20-40cm x 20-40cm wide, short-lived perennial or annual, tolerates light frost, full sun to light shade in well drained to moist, moderately drained soils, low maintenance, grows well in rocky shallow soils, acrid milky sap of Isotoma axillaris and Isotoma anethifolia can cause severe irritation to skin and temporary blindness if inadvertent contact is made with eyes, and has been reported to be poisonous to stock, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.
  10. Kennedia coccinea – Coral Vine Plant, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen ground cover or climber, height 0.3-4m x 3-4m wide, groundcover plant, feature plant, screening plant, prefers well-drained soils, full sun to light shade, erosion control, drought resistant, tolerates light frost, attracts butterflies, other insects.
  11. Kennedia prostrata – Running Postman, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen ground cover or climber, height 1- 1.5m x 1-3m wide, groundcover plant, prefers moist, well-drained soils, full sun to light shade, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, drought resistant, tolerates light frost, attracts butterflies, other insects.
  12. Myoporum parvifolium – Creeping Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae, fast-growing, low, dense, spreading groundcover, height 20-30cm x 1-3m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, tolerates light frost, grows in most soil types and poor soils, full sun to light shade in dry, well drained soils, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  13. Myoporum pavifoloium purpurea – Purple Creeping Boobialla, Family: Scrophulariaceae, fast-growing, low, dense, spreading groundcover, height 15-30cm x 1-3m wide, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, tolerates light frost, grows in most soil types and poor soils, full sun to light shade in dry, well drained soils, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  14. Rhagodia spinescens – Spiny Saltbush, Family: Chenopodiaceae, small to medium spreading shrub, height 0.5-1.5m x 1.5-4m wide, dense, spreading evergreen plant, hedge or windbreak, dioecious (separate male and female plants), tolerates coastal conditions, tolerates salinity, tolerates light frost, full sun to part shade in dry, well drained soils, grows in most soil types and poor soils, thorny dense foliage provides shelter for lizards, small animals and small birds, bird nesting plant, foliage can be used as animal fodder in drought conditions and semi-arid locations.
  15. Scaevola aemula – Fan Flower, Family: Goodeniaceae, groundcover, height 0.4-0.5m x 0.4-1m wide, fast-growing, short-lived evergreen perennial, mounding, flowering feature or border plant, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frosts, full sun to light shade in well drained to moist, moderately drained soil, grows in most soil types, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  16. Scaevola albida – White Fan Flower, Family: Goodeniaceae, groundcover, height 0.2-0.4m x 0.5-2m wide, mat-forming spreading groundcover plant, relatively long-lived flowering feature plant, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frosts, full sun to light shade in well drained to moist, moderately drained soil, grows in most soil types, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  17. Scaevola hookeri – Creeping Fan Flower, Alpine Fan Flower, Mat Fan Flower, Family: Goodeniaceae, groundcover, height flat growing prostrate x 1m wide, groundcover plant in moist gardens and bog gardens, grows in moist bare soil in subalpine wet forest, snow and frost tolerant, semi shade to dappled shade, attracts beneficial insects, including native wasps, blue banded bees, butterflies and others.
  18. Viola hederacea – Native Violet, Family: Violaceae, height 0.1-0.2m x 0.3-1m wide, spreading perennial evergreen groundcover and lawn alternative for shady areas, low maintenance, spreads by underground runners and can regrow after dying back from harsh conditions, tolerates light frost, light shade to heavy shade in moist, moderately drained sandy loam to clay soils, prefers moist soils with some organic matter, can grow under trees if moisture is adequate, edible flowers.
  19. Viola banksii – Native Violet, Family: Violaceae, height 0.2-0.4m x 0.3-2m wide, spreading perennial evergreen groundcover and lawn alternative for shady areas, low maintenance, spreads by underground runners and can regrow after dying back from harsh conditions, tolerates light frost, light shade to heavy shade, prefers moist soils with some organic matter, can grow under trees if moisture is adequate, edible flowers. This variety is taller and more aesthetically attractive than the less common Viola hederacea, and will tolerate a wider range of soils, from well-drained to boggy, poorly drained soils such as in bog gardens, and will also grow in poor soils.

 

Non-Australian Ground Cover Plants That Are Hard to Burn

  1. Ajuga reptans – Bugle
  2. Coprosma x kirkii – Creeping Coprosma
  3. Delosperma ‘alba’ – White Trailing Iceplant
  4. Drosanthemum floribundum – Rosea Iceplant
  5. Gazania species – Gazanias
  6. Hedera species – Clinging Types of Ivy
  7. Helianthemum species – Sunrose, Rock rose
  8. Kochia species – Bluebushes
  9. Lampranthus multiradiatus– Noonflower
  10. Portulacaria species – Jade Plants
  11. Pelargonium species – Geranium
  12. Rosmarinus officinalis prostrate – Rosemary
  13. Santolina species – Cotton Lavender
  14. Sedum species – Stonecrops
  15. Verbena peruviana – Peruvian Verbena
  16. Vinca species – Periwinkles
  17. Viola species. – Violets

 

Australian Climbing Plants That Are Hard to Burn

With any climbers, don’t grow them against the house or any other buildings in fire-prone areas as they may catch and retain burning embers!

  1. Kennedia coccinea – Coral Vine Plant, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen ground cover or climber, height 0.3-4m x 3-4m wide, groundcover plant, feature plant, screening plant, prefers well-drained soils, full sun to light shade, erosion control, drought resistant, tolerates light frost, attracts butterflies, other insects.
  2. Kennedia prostrata – Running Postman, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen ground cover or climber, height 1- 1.5m x 1-3m wide, groundcover plant, prefers moist, well-drained soils, full sun to light shade, tolerates coastal conditions, erosion control, drought resistant, tolerates light frost, attracts butterflies, other insects.
  3. Kennedia beckxiana – Cape Arid Climber, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen climber, height 0.2-10 metres x 1-10m wide, groundcover plant, screening plant, windbreak, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, well-draining soils in full sun.
  4. Kennedia nigricans – Black Coral Pea, Family: Fabaceae, fast-growing evergreen, spreading climber, height 0.2-10m x 1-10m wide, groundcover plant, screening plant, erosion control, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light frost, can grow in poor soils, well-draining soils in full sun.
  5. Pandorea pandorana – Wonga Wonga Vine, Family: Bignoneaceae, fast-growing evergreen spreading climber, height 2-20m x 1-9m wide, feature plant, tolerates coastal conditions, drought tolerant, tolerates light to heavy frost, full sun to light shade in well-drained to moist, moderately drained soils, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.
  6. Pandorea jasminoides – Bower of Beauty, Bower Vine, Bower Climber, Family: Bignoneaceae, fast-growing evergreen climber, height 3-5m x 1-1.5m wide, tolerates light frost, drought tolerant once established, feature plant, screening plant, erosion control, full sun to part shade in a moist, well draining clay loam or sandy soil, attracts bees, butterflies, other insects.

 

 

References:

The plant lists in this article are an extensive compilation of information from the following main sources and numerous other minor sources:

  • Publication of the Glen Forrest V.B.F.B, adapted from “Trees and Plants for Bush Fire Prone Areas,” Fire and Emergency Services Authority Australia, 2002.
  • Government of South Australia, State Flora, Bushfire resistance – https://www.stateflora.sa.gov.au/the-australian-garden/why-choose-native-plants/bushfire-resistance
  • Tasmania Fire Services, Fire Retardant Garden Plants for The Urban Fringe and Rural Areas brochure – https://www.fire.tas.gov.au/publications/1709%20Brochure.pdf
  • ACS Distance Education – Designing a Fire Break

Plant cultivation and growth habit details are an extensive compilation of information from the following main sources and numerous other minor sources:

 

Notes:

Article header image shows Australian native tree Acacia dealbata, common name Silver Wattle.

 

About Angelo (admin)

Angelo Eliades is a presenter, trainer, writer, permaculture consultant, urban permaculture pioneer and food forest specialist.
This entry was posted in Gardening Information, Permaculture, Permaculture Plants and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Australian Native and Exotic Fire Resistant Trees and Plants for Fireproof Landscapes

  1. Lisa says:

    Thank you Angelo, I am just starting out with design. I completed 4 years ago, but due to I’ll health its been a slow getting started. Due to the fires around Coffs Harbour NSW I have been asked to design for fire breaks. I was researching for Tagurust trees and low and behold your fabulous site popped up. ( I have been following you for years) you are a wealth of information and an amazing soul. Thank you again, the information on your site not only encourages, support, informs but will also save lives.❤❤💖 lisa

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s